Thursday, May 19, 2016

PowerShell + Pester : counter based mocking

Recently, I have been writing/ reading a lot of Pester tests (both Unit and Integration) for infrastructure validation.

One of the classic limitation hit during mocking with Pester is that you can have different mocks based on different arguments to a parameter (e.g using parameterFilter with Mock ) but not based on a counter.

For Example - See below, I have two mocks for Get-Process cmdlet based on the name passed to it.



Mock -CommandName Get-Service -ParameterFilter {$Name -eq 'winrm'} -mockwith {[PSCustomObjet]@{Status='Running'}}
Mock -CommandName Get-Service -ParameterFilter {$Name -eq 'bits'} -mockwith {[PSCustomObjet]@{Status='Stopped'}


This is really helpful, but there is a case where we want different mocks to occur based on a an incremental counter (number of times) a function/Cmdlet etc. are called in our script.




Monday, May 09, 2016

PowerShell : check script running on nano

If you are authoring scripts targeting Nano server specifically then there are two checks which you can bake into (maybe add them to the default nano authoring snippet in ISE) them.




Saturday, May 07, 2016

PowerShell + AzureRM : Automated login using Service Principal

Do you remember ?
In the older Azure Service Management model, we had an option to import the publish settings file and use the certificate for authenticating. It saved a lot of hassle.


That method is deprecating now but we have something better which we can use in the newer ARM model.

BTW for record I find it really annoying to enter credentials each time when I want to quickly try something out on Azure. So I have been using two techniques for automated login to the AzureRM portal.

  • Storing Service principal creds locally (encrypted at rest using Windows Data Protection API) and using that to login.
  • Using Certificate based automated login (another post).

Friday, March 04, 2016

Test connectivity via a specific network interface

Recently while working on a Private cloud implementation, I came across a scenario where I needed to test connectivity of a node to the AD/DNS via multiple network adapters. 

Many of us would know that having multiple network routes is usually done to take care of redundancy. So that if a network adapter goes down, one can use the other network interface to reach out to the node.

In order to make it easy for everyone to follow along, below is an analogy for the above scenario:

My laptop has multiple network adapters (say Wi-Fi and Ethernet) connected to the same network. Now how do I test connectivity to a Server on the network only over say Wi-Fi network adapter?



Wednesday, February 24, 2016

PowerShell : Nested Remoting (PSRemoting + PSDirect)

Well the title is interesting enough, right ?
I saw some interesting comments when I posted the below pic around the release of Server 2016 TP3 in our PowerShell FB group:




In this post, I try to tell how I use this simple trick in my everyday use.


Friday, February 12, 2016

PowerShell : Getting started with MutEx

After setting up the context for the use case of the MutEx in previous post, it is time to do our homework on the topic.


Theory


MutEx as per the MSDN documentation is:
"A synchronization primitive that grants exclusive access to the shared resource to only one thread. If a thread acquires a mutex, the second thread that wants to acquire that mutex is suspended until the first thread releases the mutex."

Thursday, February 11, 2016

PowerShell : Use Case for MutEx

This post is to give you context on a practical use case of using MutEx in PowerShell.

From the MSDN documentation for the MutEx class , MutEx is :


"A synchronization primitive that can also be used for interprocess synchronization."


Mut - Mutually 
Ex - Exclusive


Recently while deploying AzureStack, I saw multiple failed deployments, partly because of me not paying attention. 


But since it failed, I had to go and look at the code in an effort to see what went wrong.

AzureStack runs all the deployment tasks for creating a POC by using scheduled tasks (runs in System context) heavily.

Also the status of the deployment  is tracked by using XML files (these are placed under C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\AzureStack\), so they have to avoid conflicts in reading and writing of these XML files from these tasks which are separate PowerShell processes.

Monday, January 11, 2016

PowerShell : Retry logic in Scripts

One of my projects required me to copy a CSV file (important step) to a VM running on Server 2012 R2.
I’ve found this excellent tip by Ravi on using Copy-VMfile cmdlets in Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V. To use this cmdlet, I had to enable "Guest Service Interface" component in the Integration Services (below is what documentation says about the service).

This new component in the Integration Services allows copying files to a running VM without any network connection (How cool is that?).

The tip mentioned earlier talks about how to enable the component using Enable-VMIntegrationService, but there is a delay between enabling the component and successfully using the Copy-VMfile cmdlet. 

So how do I go about making sure that the service is running before the cmdlet is issued, or keep retrying the cmdlet until it succeeds ?




Wednesday, December 02, 2015

PowerShell + SCCM : Run CM cmdlets remotely

Today I saw a tweet about using implicit remoting to load the Configuration Manager on my machine by Justin Mathews. It caught my eye as I have never really tried it, but theoretically it can be done.




Note - The second tweet says "Cannot find a provider with the name CMSite", resolution to which is in the Troubleshooting section at the end.


Sunday, November 08, 2015

PowerShell + SCCM : WMI Scripting

Why should I use WMI, when there is a PowerShell module available for Configuration Manager (CM Module) already?

Well the cmdlets behind the scene interact with the WMI layer and if you know which WMI classes the corresponding cmdlet work with , it can be of help in future by :


  1. Switching to native WMI calls when the CM cmdlets fail for some reason (probably bug in the CM Module).
  2. Making your scripts more efficient by optimizing the WMI (WQL query) calls, the cmdlet will query all the properties for an Object (select *) you can select only ones you need. 
  3. Lastly no dependency on the CM Module, you can run these automation scripts from a machine not having the CM console installed (needed for CM module).
Moreover ConfigMgr uses WMI extensively, you already have this knowledge leveraging it with PowerShell shouldn't surprise you. This post assumes you have been working with CM cmdlets (you already are versed with PowerShell), know where the WMI namespace for ConfigMgr resides and the basics of WMI.


Example Problem:


I will use one of the problem people have been commenting about a lot on the below post

PowerShell + SCCM 2012 R2 : Create an Application (from MSI) & Deploy it



What they want to do is specify multiple app-categories to an application while creating these apps using PowerShell ?

This seemed trivial at first as the help for the Set-CMApplication cmdlet which is used to set the app category for an application accepts a string array. Probably a bug in the cmdlet (as this seems to be working on the most recent CM module). See below the comment screenshot from the post :